Spinel has been used in jewelry for a long time, but this gemstone has only recently been given the attention it deserves. Until the late 19th and early 20th centuries, spinel was often thought to be corundum because they are often found in the same mines.
However, each of these minerals has a different chemical make-up. As a result, the reputation of the stone was hurt when people learned that some of their favorite rubies and sapphires were actually spinels.
Furthermore, synthetic spinel is also cheap and common. It has been used a lot as a fake gem in class rings and birthstone jewelry, which has made people think it isn’t real. This isn’t true of spinel, which has always been a rare and beautiful gem.
Spinel’s natural beauty has become more appealing to people who know how much work it takes to improve the color or clarity of low-quality rubies and sapphires.
Today, almost all of the natural spinels on the market haven’t been treated.
People who like them because of their low prices can buy them in almost any color and use them for most types of jewelry find them even more appealing.
Isometric. Crystals octahedral; also as grains, massive.
Varies, 1.719-1.920. See table in “Spinel Varieties” below.
Various shades of red, blue, green; also brown, black, gray, lilac, purple, orange, orange-red, rose, nearly colorless.
Vitreous to subadamantine.
3.58-3.98; gems 3.58-3.61. See table in “Varieties” below.
Reds and pinks: crimson in LW, also SW; red in X-rays; no phosphorescence. Blue: inert in UV. Deep purple: red in LW, essentially inert SW, lilac in X-rays. Pale blue and violet: green in LW, X-rays, essentially inert in SW. Orange, red, and pink; inert to weak red or red/orange SW. Weak to strong red and orange LW. Cobalt blue; strong chalky whitish-green SW. Inert to moderate orange or orange/red LW. Near colorless and light green; inert to moderate orange/red LW. Deep purple; red LW, inert SW. Pale blue and violet; green LW, inert SW.
Fluorescent, UV-Long, UV-Short, X-ray Colors
Natural spinels are usually not enhanced but may receive heat treatment. Synthetic spinels may be quench crackled.
Special Care Instructions
Transparent to opaque.
Red and pink; Strong fluorescence between 490 and 595 nm, weak band at 656, sharp lines at 685.5 and 684 nm. May also show chromium spectrum, broadband at 540 nm, and absorption of violet. Blue; Strong band at 458 nm, narrow at 478 nm, weak lines at 443 and 433, may also have bands around 430 to 435, 550, 565 to 575, 590, and 625. Violet and purple; May show the same spectrum as blue, only weaker.
Asterism, chatoyancy, color change (rare).
Spinel minute octahedral crystals are often aligned in planes or swirls. Synthetic spinel strong ADR, cross-hatch effect. Except for red and pink, fluorescence often varies from natural.
MgAl2O4 + many substitutional elements.
Possibly from the Latin spina for “thorn,” alluding to spine-shaped crystals. Since this is not a common habit for spinel, this origin is uncertain.
Spinels are found in metamorphic rocks and their weathering products. Especially found in contact deposits (marbles and limestones).
See “Identifying Characteristics” below.
Spinels come in a variety of colors, including pink, lavender, red, red-orange, purple, blue, and even black, and can be found in all shades of pink, lavender, red, red-orange, purple, blue, and even black. (It appears that just pure green and yellow are missing.)
These precious stones can be found on every continent. The hue of the variants is frequently used to identify them. Since they were originally identified as rubies and sapphires, the red and blue types are likely the most well-known. (In terms of luster and hardness, spinel is similar to corundum.)
Spinel is a mineral that is made up of several different minerals. The spinel group includes gahnite, hercynite, ceylonite, picotite, and galaxite. These materials are extremely dark and are only occasionally used as jewels.
They’re all magnesium, iron, and zinc isometric oxides with traces of aluminum and other elements. Between spinel (MgAl2O4) and gahnite, there is a solid-state solution (ZnAl2O4). Gahnospinel is the name for the intermediate species ([Mg, Zn]Al2O4). Pure spinel is far more abundant than its blends, unlike most solid-state series such as garnet.
Spinels are allochromatic gemstones. This signifies that the mineral is colorless when it is pure. The existence of trace elements working as chromophores is the only source of color.
The most prevalent chromophores in spinel are chromium, iron, and cobalt. The bulk of jewelry gems are allochromatic, such as beryl (emerald, aquamarine), corundum (ruby and sapphire), quartz, and topaz. Colorless cultivars have been created without the color-producing contaminants.
The colorless variations are the most prevalent and thus the least desirable in most of these circumstances. The exception is spinel. Colorless specimens had never been discovered in nature till recently.
Although colorless material may be manufactured in labs by the bucketful, the conditions under which this gem occurs in nature appear to seldom exclude the coloring trace components, making colorless natural stones a rare and valuable collector’s jewel.
Starstone spinels with four-rayed stars have been cut from gray or grayish-blue to black Myanmar stones on rare occasions. If the material is orientated along the crystal’s 3-fold symmetry axis, a 6-rayed star can be seen (parallel to the edges of an octahedral face).
Alexandrite-like spinels have been discovered, which are grayish-blue in daylight and amethystine in incandescent light. They’re uncommon and usually little. Due to the presence of Fe, Cr, and V, some Sri Lankan stones shift from violet (daylight) to reddish-violet.
Spinel’s high refractive index offers superb brilliance in a well-cut and polished stone, regardless of color. Its hardness of 8 makes it suitable for practically all types of jewelry, including rings. A high “Tiffany-style” setting for an engagement ring or a signature ring for 24/7 wear, on the other hand, is not recommended.
all but pure green and yellow
blue, dark blue
black, dark colors
Ceylonite and pleonaste
3.63-3.90 (esp. 3.80)
very dark colors
dark green to black
deep red to black
Refractive index variation with color, as generally observed in gems:
Red: 1.715 – 1.735
Blue: 1.715 – 1.747
Others: 1.712- 1.717 (normal)
The spectra are very distinct, which helps with identification.
The chromium spectrum, which includes a broad band at 540 nm as well as violet absorption, is red and pink. Fluorescent “organpipe” lines could be a group of fine red lines.
Blue: There are blue lines in the iron spectrum, particularly at 458, as well as a narrow line at 478 and weak lines at 443 and 433. 686, 675, as well as 635, 585, 555, and 508, are the two most powerful. (Note that this iron spectrum differs from synthetic spinel’s cobalt blue.) Bands of 700 and 570 in Nigerian blue gahnite are similar to those found in spinel.
The spectrum of mauve and pastel blue is similar to that of blue, except it is weaker.
In general, spines are free of inclusions, although some inclusions stand out. Silk is rarely visible in spinel, as it is in sapphires and rubies.
There are angular inclusions known as spangles. The unique rows and swirls of small octahedra of another spinel, such as magnetite (Fe3O4), are visible.
Iron-stained films and feathers, particularly near gem margins, zircon inclusions and darkening surrounding areas, and zircon haloes (owing to radioactivity) with feather around zircon due to stress cracking are also common.
Natural spinels have octahedron-shaped cavities (negative crystals) that are occasionally filled with calcite.
Calcite, apatite, dolomite, and olivine may be found in specimens from Mogok, Myanmar. Zircon, sphene, baddeleyite, phlogopite, apatite, and spinel may be found in Sri Lankan specimens.
Auguste Verneuil created the flame fusion process for creating synthetic sapphire in the late 1800s, and it can also be used to make spinel.
Colorless spinels are almost certainly man-made. (There are also very light, almost colorless natural specimens, in addition to the extremely rare colorless natural spinels.) These colorless synthetics are excellent diamond imitators.
It can be difficult to tell the difference between natural blue stones containing cobalt and flux-grown or flame-fusion synthetics. Flame fusion synthetics, on the other hand, frequently exhibit chalky, pale green fluorescence in SW UV and bright red fluorescence in LW UV.
In cross-polarized light, these synthetics also exhibit “crosshatched” or “snakelike” aberrant birefringent patterns. Absorption bands at 434, 460, and 480 nm are also visible in natural cobaltian spinel, but not in synthetic material. The band at 460 is particularly useful.
Natural spinels are usually not improved, however, they may be heated. To replicate natural fractures, synthetic spinels can be quench cracked.
Spinels have lately been discovered in Africa, Australia, Russia, and Vietnam, while they were previously only found in Afghanistan, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka.
These gems are frequently mined from alluvial or placer deposits, where eroded material has been swept downstream, rather than from the hard rock main deposits where they form. In addition to spinel, these “gem gravels” may contain other species.
The rough and tumble action of the gem rough has polished these crystals into spherical forms and eliminated much of the included and fragmented material. This alluvial rough is a material that is easy to recover and is ideal for faceting.
The use of backhoes and hydraulic hoses for removing overburden from long-buried stream beds and supplying water for gem separation by a small crew ranges from low technology (one or more miners with straw baskets sluicing the stream gravel) to high technology (the use of backhoes and hydraulic hoses for removing overburden from long-buried stream beds and supplying water for gem separation by a small crew).
Afghanistan: beautiful red spinel, the source of many ancient world huge stones.
Myanmar: commonly found as perfect octahedra in gem gravels.
In the Mogok morning “movie” market, a spinel crystal in marble is for sale. EighthDimensionGems.com of Bangkok photo by Jeffery Bergman.
Sri Lanka: weathered pebbles in a wide range of colors, including pinks and blues; all blue pebbles contain traces of Zn; many from Sri Lanka are black. Sri Lanka is home to the rare cobaltian form.
Fine blue gahnite from Jemaa, Nigeria, with an SG of 4.40-4.59 and a RI of 1.793.
Gahnite from Madagascar, blue and gemmy.
Gahnite is found in Australia, Sweden, and New Zealand.
Kuchi Lal in the Pamir Mountains, Russia: gemmy, beautiful pink stuff.
From alluvial gravels in Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam
Japan is referred to as a galaxite.
Canada, Finland, France, Germany, India, Italy, and Pakistan are among the countries represented.
California, Colorado, Massachusetts, Montana, New Jersey, New York, and Virginia are all states in the United States.
diamonds of spinel from all over the world 4
A collection of purple, blue, and pink African spinels, a top red Myanmar gem, an African lavender stone, a pink specimen from Russia, a “padparadscha” colored African piece, and an opaque black stone. Barbara Smigel of Artistic Colored Stones provided the image.
Sizes of Stones
Spinels can range in size from a few carats to hundreds of carats and come in a variety of colors.
45.8 (light purple, Sri Lanka); 36.1 (indigo blue, Myanmar); 34 (red, Myanmar); 29.7 (red, Myanmar) Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (pink-violet, Sri Lanka).
Deformed red octahedron from Sri Lanka, 520; another crystal, 355. British Museum of Natural History, London, England: deformed red octahedron from Sri Lanka, 520; another crystal, 355.
11.25 in a private collection (Sri Lanka, superb cobaltian gem, intense blue emerald-cut).
Fine red gem, 105, Louvre, Paris, France.
New York’s American Museum of Natural History: 71.5 (red, Sri Lanka).
“Black Prince’s Ruby,” red spinel, estimated at 170; “Timur Ruby,” red spinel, 361. Crown Jewels of England: “Black Prince’s Ruby,” red spinel, estimated at 170; “Timur Ruby,” red spinel, 361.
Fine red gem, over 400 carats, from the Diamond Fund in Moscow, Russia.
Banque Markazi, Teheran, Iran: red stone with a value of over 500, another with a value of over 200, and another with a value of over 225.
Red spinels were once known as “balas rubies,” after Balascia, the historical name for the territory that is today split between Afghanistan and Tajikistan. This was a significant source of these precious stones.
Although spinels were once mistaken for rubies and sapphires, they are now recognized as separate gemstones. Any references to “spinel ruby” or “spinel sapphire” that you may come across today are incorrect.
Arizona spinels, which are red or green garnets, are occasionally referred to incorrectly as “Arizona spinels.” Almandines are sometimes referred to as “candy spinels,” which is a misleading term.
For further examples, see our List of False or Misleading Gemstone Names.
Spinels are strong and durable gemstones that don’t require any extra cleaning or care. For additional information on different cleaning systems, see our Gemstone Care Guide and Gemstone Jewelry Cleaning Guide.
Article Composed by :
Chairman: Gemological Institute of Ceylon Chairman: Youth Gem Professionals Association Chairman: Sampath Gems Director: Ceylon Sapphire Gems and Jewels Chairman: Nanosoft Web Develop Company
I think most people think of the Egyptians when they think of old jewelry. It was only when the tomb of Tutankhamun was opened in 1922 that the hieroglyphs were seen for the first time. They show people wearing gold bangles, neckpieces, and earrings. One of the most amazing things about this almost-complete tomb was that it had a lot of beautiful, gold-covered artifacts. The Egyptian aesthetic has been a big influence on Modernist jewelry, and it still has a big influence on jewelry designs today.
A fibula-brooch or pin that is used to fasten clothes, usually on the right shoulder. The fibula came in a lot of different shapes, but they all used the same safety-pin idea. Fibulae aren’t just pretty like most modern brooches. They were used to fasten clothes, like cloaks, back then. Archaeologists use the word “fibula” when they talk about ancient jewelry. They also use the word “brooch” when they talk about jewelry from the British Isles, and when they talk about other types of jewelry that aren’t old “safety pin” types.
At that time, navaratna was first used. As it turns out, India’s history of diamond mining and pearl fishing goes back more than 2,000 years. In ancient times, a lot of its coastline was protected by huge coral reefs. Today, only the eastern state of Orissa makes ruby, sapphire, emerald (beryl), garnet, topaz, zircon, and cat’s-eye chrysoberyl, all of which come from the same place. The gems of navaratna are a way to show off the natural treasures of this ancient civilization.
2. Hidden treasures of Sri Lanka
are the best gems to buy from Sri Lanka as an investment.
3. Healing power of gemstones
3. How to become a gem trader?
You could be able to,
Also should practice selling methods
A.For the beauty
B.For the wealth
C.As an Investment and protect money
D.As astrological and helping purpose
C Gem Sellers
You must study the market with a professional to speed up the process.
If not it takes a long time to evaluate row gems, cut and polished gems, and invest in proper gems.
You should only invest in investor-grade gemstones with reseller value.
That process also could only be speed up by a professional trader.
You can sell in the local market or in the international market.
The best way is gem mine to end customer.
Find end customers to make maximum revenue.
the Gemological Institute of Ceylon
Tetragonal. Crystals prismatic, pyramidal; often twinned; rounded pebbles.
Varies by the amount of radioactive damage to its crystal structure. Low (most damaged): 1.78 – 1.85; Intermediate: 1.85 – 1.93; High (least damaged): 1.92 – 2.01. See “Varieties” for more information.
Reddish-brown, yellow, gray, green, red; various other colors induced by heating.
Vitreous to adamantine; sometimes greasy.
Vitreous to adamantine
Vitreous to subadamantine
6 (Low), 7.5 (High)
Low 3.95-4.20, Intermediate 4.08-4.60, High 4.60-4.80
Varies by the amount of radioactive damage. 0 (isotropic)-0.059. See “Varieties” for more information.
Facet edges wear off. Use protective settings for ring use.
Transparent to opaque.
See “Identifying Characteristics.”
ZrSiO4 + Fe, U, Th ( Zirconium Silicate )
Distinct in blue stones: deep sky blue/colorless to yellowish gray. Red: red/clove brown. Brown: reddish-brown/yellowish brown.
From the Arabic zargun, from the Persian zar for “gold” plus gun for “color.” The name is ancient.
In igneous rocks worldwide, especially granites. Also found as alluvial material.
Angular zoning and streaks are sometimes seen in the low type. Some silk is seen occasionally, as well as tension cracks and epigenetic cracks stained with iron oxides. Metamict pieces may have bright fissures known as angles.
As a species, zircon has a lot of interesting attributes. Because it has a high refractive index (RI) and a lot of different things that look like diamonds, some people think it was the “natural choice” for a diamond simulant because of these things.
When they are cut correctly, colorless zircons can look like and even outshine poor diamonds.
Zircon, which has been used as a diamond substitute for a long time, is actually rarer than diamond.
It only goes so far. This can make these gems look dull and lifeless if the cutting is bad. Zircons aren’t as hard as diamonds, but they’re still a good choice for jewelry stones because they range from 6 to 7.5.
They also have a very weak tenacity, which is less than most gemstones. Their facet edges are easy to chip and wear.
Birefringence is the most noticeable difference between zircons and diamonds in terms of how they look (double refraction). The table of a zircon must be aligned with the optic axis because it has a lot of birefringences.
Diamonds don’t have this. It might look bad if you don’t. Facet image doubling might make the inside look bad.
It’s true that zircons aren’t just fake diamonds. They’re also more than just that. They’re beautiful stones in their own right, and they come in a wide range of colors that are found in nature. Heat treatments also make a lot of new colors.
The names for Zircons
*Hyacinth or jacinth is a type of transparent reddish-brown zircon. This name was also used for hessonite, which is a reddish-orange variety of garnet.
*Starlite is made of rich, blue zircons that have been heated. Even though you may still see this marketing name, it didn’t really catch on.
*Stremlite: blue zircons.
*Jargoon or jargon is a term for zircons that are light yellow or have no color at all.
*Beccarite: green zircons.
*Melichrysos: yellow zircons.
*Sparklite: colorless zircons.
Zircons that don’t have any color have been sold as “Matara” or “Matura diamonds” and “Ceylon diamonds.” Zircons can be used to make diamonds look like diamonds, but selling them as real diamonds is unethical.
Blue zircons have been sold as “Siam aquamarines,” but they aren’t.
Zircons are rarer than both diamonds and aquamarines, but these gems are more popular than zircons, even though they are rarer. Thus, some dishonest people will use these names to sell zircons more quickly.
You can see a list of gemstone names that aren’t true or that aren’t very clear.
Radiation and the Properties of Zircon
They get a little bit of radioactive uranium and thorium as they grow. This radiation can’t be seen or heard. In time, the crystal structure is broken down by a lot of radiation, but not all at once. These stones, which are usually green, change color. Those are materials that no longer have crystals in them because radiation has made them more amorphous than they used to be. They have a lower RI and more sparkle than crystallized zircons.
People put zircon into one of three groups based on how bad it is going to get. High, immediate, or medium, or low. These are also called alpha, beta, and gamma, but they aren’t the only types of brain cells. The classes are easy to tell apart because the properties change in an even way.
All of the zircon in high zircon is crystal clear and has the best properties.
Intermediate zircon is material that has been slightly damaged by radiation.
A lot of zircon is metamict. ( A mineral whose crystal structure has been disrupted by radiation from contained radioactive particles )
It’s interesting that dispersion is the same for both high and low types, but other optical properties are different. The texture of low zircon is often cloudy.
The most obvious way to tell a zircon diamond from a real diamond is by the former’s birefringence.
All types of faceted zircon can be identified by having worn or abrased facet edges.
The fluorescence of zircon can be different. Some things aren’t useful. Other crystals light up very brightly. Mustard yellow and yellow-orange are two of the most common colors that glow under shortwave ultraviolet (UV) light. There are some zircons that glow dull yellow in longwave (LW) UV light. They may also phosphoresce, which makes them look like fireworks. When zircon is looked at with X-rays, it can be white, yellow, green, or violet-blue.
Red to orange-red: inert to strong, yellow to orange (SW).
Yellow to orangish-yellow: inert to moderate yellow to orange (LW and SW).
Green: usually inert.
Blue: inert to moderate, light blue (LW).
Brown: inert to very weak red (SW).
A method called flux has been used by scientists to make crystalline zircons for research, so they can learn more about them. However, there is no known use for this lab-made material in jewelry. However, you may be able to buy “synthetic zircons” online. It’s not clear if this material is made in a lab or if it’s cubic zirconia, which is more common and well-known (CZ). Zircons and cubic zirconia have both been used to look like diamonds, but they’re two different types of gems. While the CZ used in jewelry is made in a lab, it’s not synthetic zircon.
Zircons that don’t have any color or blue have almost always been heated. This procedure is not going to be found. Heating is the most common way to make blue, colorless, and golden yellow shades. The stones that make these beautiful colors are usually reddish-brown in color. People don’t usually heat treat zircons that aren’t the same color. Green and yellow colors made by heating are usually more stable over time and less likely to fade from sunlight and UV light than blues made by heating.
Heating helps to crystallize zircons that aren’t completely clear. This increases the specific gravity and makes the absorption spectrum more focused.
People who heat green Sri Lankan zircon make it look a little less green in color. Sri Lankan material that is reddish-brown turns colorless, sometimes reddish violet.
A lot of people like to heat red-brown Thai and Cambodian stones so that they become colorless, blue, or golden.
Often, brownstones are heated with or without oxygen in them to make them look blue and yellow.
Brown zircons with a lot of uranium may turn green when they are heated.
Zircon can be found all over the world, but crystals that are good enough to be used as gems are rare. Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia are the main sources of zircons that are good enough for jewelry.
Sri Lanka makes gravel in all kinds of colors, including rare cat’s eyes.
Cambodia is the chief source of material that heat treats to colorless and blue.
Myanmar produces yellowish and greenish stones in gem gravels with ruby. These stones have complex absorption spectra.
Thailand is one of the most important commercial sources of gem-grade zircon.
Other notable gem-quality sources include the following localities:
New South Wales, Australia: fine gem material (orange).
Quebec and Ontario, Canada: dark, opaque crystals up to 15 pounds, yield only tiny gems.
France: red crystals at Espaly, St. Marcel.
Emali, Tanzania: white zircon pebbles.
United States: Colorado; Maine; Massachusetts; New Jersey; New York; Oklahoma; South Dakota; Texas.
Brazil; China; Germany; India; Madagascar; Mexico; Nigeria; Norway; North Korea; Pakistan; Russia; South Korea; Vietnam.
Zircons should be worn carefully so that they don’t get scratched. As ring stones, they should be set in a way that protects them. Otherwise, only wear zircon jewelry once in a while. To find out more about how to choose zircons and other delicate gems for engagement ring stones, read this article.
Poorly cut zircons might be better if they were recut by an expert. The before and after photos of zircons in this article on gem recutting and repair will show you how they look before and after.
Almost all zircons are safe to wear, but some have low or metamict levels of natural radioactivity, especially the low or metamict type. It is a good idea for gem cutters to check the radioactivity of zircons before cutting them.
Mechanical cleaners, like ultrasonic cleaners, should not be used to clean zircons because they are very fragile and should not be used. Instead, use warm water, mild detergent, and a soft brush to clean your Zircon.
Article Composed by :
Chairman: Gemological Institute of Ceylon
Chairman: Youth Gem Professionals Association
Chairman: Sampath Gems
Director: Ceylon Sapphire Gems and Jewels
Chairman: Nanosoft Web Develop Company
While some cut names refer to the finished gem’s face-up shape, others refer to the shape and arrangement of the facets. Gem cutting styles are another name for these cuts. Brilliant, step and mixed are the three most fundamental cutting styles. A “round brilliant diamond,” for example, has a round form yet is cut brilliant. Faceters can mix and match these styles to create a wide range of gem designs.
The Three Most Common Gem Cutting Techniques
Facets in brilliant cuts are triangular and kite-shaped and radiate outward from the gem’s center. The brilliant-cut, as its name suggests, produces the highest scintillation of any cut.
Rectangular facets that ascend the crown and descend the pavilion in steps make up step cuts. Emerald and baguette cuts are examples of step cuts. These are popular because they highlight the color and clarity of the stone while also producing a slight sparkle.
The step cut and dazzling cut styles are combined in mixed cuts. The crown has dazzling facets, while the pavilion has step facets or vice versa. Cabbing and faceting techniques may be used in mixed cuts.
Cem Cutting for Maximum Profit
Article Composed by :
Chairman: Gemological Institute of Ceylon
Chairman: Youth Gem Professionals Association
Chairman: Sampath Gems
Director: Ceylon Sapphire Gems and Jewels
Director: Ceylon Gem Fair International
Chairman: Nanosoft Web Develop Company